Publication DetailsInjection of Zero Valent Iron into an Unconfined Aquifer Using Shear-Thinning Fluids.
Truex MJ, VR Vermeul, DP Mendoza, BG Fritz, RD Mackley, M Oostrom, TW Wietsma, and T Macbeth.2011."Injection of Zero Valent Iron into an Unconfined Aquifer Using Shear-Thinning Fluids."Ground Water Monitoring and Remediation 31(1):50-58.
Approximately 190 kg of two micron-diameter zero-valent iron (ZVI) particles were injected into a test zone in the top two meters of an unconfined aquifer within a trichloroethene (TCE) source area. A shear-thinning fluid was used to enhance ZVI delivery in the subsurface to a radial distance of up to four meters from a single injection well. The ZVI particles were mixed in-line with the injection water, shear-thinning fluid, and a low concentration of surfactant. ZVI was observed at each of the seven monitoring wells within the targeted radius of influence during injection. Additionally, all wells within the targeted zone showed low TCE concentrations and primarily dechlorination products present 44 days after injection. These results suggest that ZVI can be directly injected into an aquifer with shear-thinning fluids and extends the applicability of ZVI to situations where other emplacement methods may not be viable.